THE LIFE OF THE BLESSED EMPEROR CONSTANTINE,
BY EUSEBIUS PAMPHILUS,
Secret Persecution by Licinius, who causes Same Bishops to be put to Death at Amasia of
In this manner, he of whom we have spoken continued to rush headlong towards that destruction
which awaits the enemies of God; and once more, with a fatal emulation of their example whose
ruin he had himself witnessed as the consequence of their impious conduct, he re-kindled the
persecution of the Christians, like a long-extinguished fire, and fanned the unhallowed flame to a
fiercer height than any who had gone before him.
At first, indeed, though breathing fury and threatenings against God, like some savage beast of
prey, or some crooked and wriggling serpent, he dared not, from fear of Constantine, openly level
his attacks against the churches of God subject to his dominion; but dissembled the virulence of
his malice, and endeavored by secret and limited measures to compass the death of the bishops,
the most eminent of whom he found means to remove, through charges laid against them by the
governors of the several provinces. And the manner in which they suffered had in it something
strange, and hitherto unheard of. At all events, the barbarities perpetrated at Amasia of Pontus
surpassed every known excess of cruelty.
Demolition of Churches, and Butchery of the Bishops.
For in that city some of the churches, for the second time since the commencement of the
persecutions, were leveled with the ground, and others were closed by the governors of the
several districts, in order to prevent any who frequented them from assembling together, or
rendering due worship to God. For he by whose orders these outrages were committed was too
conscious of his own crimes to expect that these services were performed with any view to his
benefit, and was convinced that all we did, and all our endeavors to obtain the favor of God, were
on Constantine's behalf. These servile governors then, feeling assured that such a course would
be pleasing to the impious tyrant, subjected the most distinguished prelates of the churches to
capital punishment. Accordingly, men who had been guilty of no crime were led away, without
cause punished like murderers: and some suffered a new kind of death, having their bodies cut
piecemeal; and, after this cruel punishment, more horrible than any named in tragedy, being cast,
as a food to fishes, into the depths of the sea. The result of these horrors was again, as before, the
flight of pious men, and once more the fields and deserts received the worshipers of God. The
tyrant, having thus far succeeded in his object, he farther determined to raise a general
persecution of the Christians: and he would have accomplished his purpose, nor could anything
have hindered him from carrying his resolution into effect, had not he who defends his own
anticipated the coming evil, and by his special guidance conducted his servant Constantine to this
part of the empire, causing him to shine forth as a brilliant light in the midst of the darkness and
How Constantine was stirred in Behalf of the Christians thus in Danger of Persecution.
He perceiving the evils of which he had heard to be no longer tolerable, took wise counsel, and
tempering the natural clemency of his character with a certain measure of severity, hastened to
succor those who were thus grievously oppressed. For he judged that it would rightly be deemed
a pious and holy task to secure, by the removal of an individual, the safety of the greater part of
the human race. He judged too, that if he listened to the dictates of clemency only, and bestowed
his pity on one utterly unworthy of it, this would, on the one hand, confer no real benefit on a
man whom nothing would induce to abandon his evil practices, and whose fury against his
subjects would only be likely to increase; while, on the other hand, those who suffered from his
oppression would thus be forever deprived of all hope of deliverance.
Influenced by these reflections, the emperor resolved without farther delay to extend a protecting
hand to those who had fallen into such an extremity of distress. He accordingly made the usual
warlike preparations, and assembled his whole forces, both of horse and foot. But before them all
was carried the standard which I have before described, as the symbol of his full confidence in
That Constantine prepared himself for the War by Prayer: Licinius by the Practice of Divination.
He took with him also the priests of God, feeling well assured that now, if ever, he stood in need
of the efficacy of prayer, and thinking it right that they should constantly be near and about his
person, as most trusty guardians of the soul.
Now, as soon as the tyrant understood that Constantine's victories over his enemies were secured
to him by no other means than the cooperation of God, and that the persons above alluded to
were continually with him and about his person; and besides this, that the symbol of the salutary
passion preceded both the emperor himself and his whole army; he regarded these precautions
with ridicule (as might be expected), at the same time mocking and reviling the emperor with
On the other hand, he gathered round himself Egyptian diviners and soothsayers, with sorcerers
and enchanters, and the priests and prophets of those whom he imagined to be gods. He then,
after offering the sacrifices which he thought the occasion demanded, enquired how far he might
reckon on a successful termination of the war. They replied with one voice, that he would
unquestionably be victorious over his enemies, and triumphant in the war: and the oracles
everywhere held out to him the same prospect in copious and elegant verses. The soothsayers
certified him of favorable omens from the flight of birds; the priests declared the same to be
indicated by the motion of the entrails of their victims. Elevated, therefore, by these fallacious
assurances, he boldly advanced at the head of his army, and prepared for battle.
What Licinius, while sacrificing in a Grove, said concerning Idols, and concerning Christ.
And when he was now ready to engage, he desired the most approved of his body-guard and his
most valued friends to meet him in one of the places which they consider sacred. It was a
well-watered and shady grove, and in it were several marble statues of those whom he accounted
to be gods. After lighting tapers and performing the usual sacrifices in honor of these, he is said
to have delivered the following speech:
"Friends and fellow-soldiers ! These are our country's gods, and these we honor with a worship
derived from our remotest ancestors. But he who leads the army now opposed to us has proved
false to the religion of his forefathers, and adopted atheistic sentiments, honoring in his
infatuation some strange and unheard-of Deity, with whose despicable standard he now disgraces
his army, and confiding in whose aid he has taken up arms, and is now advancing, not so much
against us as against those very gods whom he has forsaken. However, the present occasion shall
prove which of us is mistaken in his judgment, and shall decide between our gods and those
whom our adversaries profess to honor. For either it will declare the victory to be ours, and so
most justly evince that our gods are the true saviours and helpers; or else, if this God of
Constantine's, who comes we know not whence, shall prove superior to our deities (who are
many, and in point of numbers, at least, have the advantage), let no one henceforth doubt which
god he ought to worship, but attach himself at once to the superior power, and ascribe to him the
honors of the victory. Suppose, then, this strange God, whom we now regard with ridicule,
should really prove victorious; then indeed we must acknowledge and give him honor, and so bid
a long farewell to those for whom we light our tapers in vain. But if our own gods triumph (as
they undoubtedly will), then, as soon as we have secured the present victory, let us prosecute the
war without delay against these despisers of the gods."
Such were the words he addressed to those then present, as reported not long after to the writer of
this history by some who heard them spoken. And as soon as he had concluded his speech, he
gave orders to his forces to commence the attack.
An Apparition seen in the Cities subject to Licinius, as of Constantine's Troops passing through
WHILE these things were taking place a supernatural appearance is said to have been observed in
the cities subject to the tyrant's rule. Different detachments of Constantine's army seemed to
present themselves to the view, marching at noonday through these cities, as though they had
obtained the victory. In reality, not a single soldier was anywhere present at the time, and yet this
appearance was seen through the agency of a divine and superior power, and foreshadowed what
was shortly coming to pass. For as soon as the armies were ready to engage, he who had broken
through the ties of friendly alliance was the first to commence the battle; on which Constantine,
calling on the name of "God the Supreme Saviour," and giving this as the watchword to his
soldiers, overcame him in this first conflict: and not long after in a second battle he gained a still
more important and decisive victory, the salutary trophy preceding the ranks of his army.
That Victory everywhere followed the Presence of the Standard of the Cross in Battle.
Indeed, wherever this appeared, the enemy soon fled before his victorious troops. And the
emperor perceiving this, whenever he saw any part of his forces hard pressed, gave orders that
the salutary trophy should be moved in that direction, like some triumphant charm against
disasters: at which the combatants were divinely inspired, as it were, with fresh strength and
courage, and immediate victory was the result.
That Fifty Men were selected to carry the Cross.
ACCORDINGLY, he selected those of his bodyguard who were most distinguished for personal
strength, valor, and piety, and intrusted them with the sole care and defense of the standard.
There were thus no less than fifty men whose only duty was to surround and vigilantly defend the
standard, which they carried each in turn on their shoulders. These circumstances were related to
the writer of this narrative by the emperor himself in his leisure moments, long after the
occurrence of the events: and he added another incident well worthy of being recorded.
That One of the Cross-bearers, who fled from his Post, was slain: while Another, who faithfully
stood his Ground, was preserved.
FOR he said that once, during the very heat of an engagement, a sudden tumult and panic
attacked his army, which threw the soldier who then bore the standard into an agony of fear, so
that he handed it over to another, in order to secure his own escape from the battle. As soon,
however, as his comrade had received it, and he had withdrawn, and resigned all charge of the
standard, he was struck in the belly by a dart, which took his life. Thus he paid the penalty of his
cowardice and unfaithfulness, and lay dead on the spot: but the other, who had taken his place as
the bearer of the salutary standard, found it to be the safeguard of his life. For though he was
assailed by a continual shower of darts, the bearer remained unhurt, the staff of the standard
receiving every weapon. It was indeed a truly marvelous circumstance, that the enemies' darts all
fell within and remained in the slender circumference of this spear, and thus saved the
standard-bearer from death; so that none of those engaged in this service ever received a wound.
This story is none of mine, but for this, too, I am indebted to the emperor's own authority, who
related it in my hearing along with other matters. And now, having thus through the power of
God secured these first victories, he put his forces in motion and continued his onward march.
Furious Battles, and Constantine's Victories.
The van, however, of the enemy, unable to resist the emperor's first assault, threw down their
arms, and prostrated themselves at his feet. All these he spared, rejoicing to save human life. But
there were others who still continued in arms, and engaged in battle. These the emperor
endeavored to conciliate by friendly overtures, but when these were not accepted he ordered his
army to commence the attack. On this they immediately turned and betook themselves to flight;
and some were overtaken and slain according to the laws of war, while others fell on each other
in the confusion of their flight, and perished by the swords of their comrades.
Flight, and Magic Arts of Licinius.
In these circumstances their commander, finding himself bereft of the aid of his followers, having
lost his lately numerous array, both of regular and allied forces, having proved, too, by
experience, how vain his confidence had been in those whom he thought to be gods,
ignominiously took to flight, by which indeed he effected his escape, and secured his personal
safety, for the pious emperor had forbidden his soldiers to follow him too closely, and thus
allowed him an opportunity for escape. And this he did in the hope that he might hereafter, on
conviction of the desperate state of his affairs, be induced to abandon his insane and
presumptuous ambition, and return to sounder reason. So Constantine, in his excessive humanity,
thought and was willing patiently to bear past injuries, and extend his forgiveness to one who so
ill deserved it; but Licinius, far from renouncing his evil practices, still added crime to crime, and
ventured on more daring atrocities than ever. Nay, once more tampering with the detestable arts
of magic, he again was presumptuous: so that it might well be said of him, as it was of the
Egyptian tyrant of old, that God had hardened his heart.
How Constantine, after praying in his Tabernacle, obtained the Victory.
But while Licinius, giving himself up to these impieties, rushed blindly towards the gulf of
destruction, the emperor on the other hand, when he saw that he must meet his enemies in a
second battle, devoted the intervening time to his Saviour. He pitched the tabernacle of the cross
outside and at a distance from his camp, and there passed his time in a pure and holy manner,
offering up prayers to God; following thus the example of his ancient prophet, of whom the
sacred oracles testify, that he pitched the tabernacle without the camp. He was attended only by a
few, whose faith and pious devotion he highly esteemed. And this custom he continued to
observe whenever he meditated an engagement with the enemy. For he was deliberate in his
measures, the better to insure safety, and desired in everything to be directed by divine counsel.
And making earnest supplications to God, he was always honored after a little with a
manifestation of his presence. And then, as if moved by a divine impulse, he would rush from the
tabernacle, and suddenly give orders to his army to move at once without delay, and on the
instant to draw their swords. On this they would immediately commence the attack, fight
vigorously, so as with incredible celerity to secure the victory, and raise trophies of victory over
His Humane Treatment of Prisoners.
Thus the emperor and his army had long been accustomed to act, whenever there was a prospect
of an engagement; for his God was ever present to his thoughts, and he desired to do everything
according to his will, and conscientiously to avoid any wanton sacrifice of human life. He was
anxious thus for the preservation not only of his own subjects, but even of his enemies.
Accordingly he directed his victorious troops to spare the lives of their prisoners, admonishing
them, as human beings, not to forget the claims of their common nature. And whenever he saw
the passions of his soldiery excited beyond control, he repressed their fury by a largess of money,
rewarding every man who saved the life of an enemy with a certain weight of gold. And the
emperor's own sagacity led him to discover this inducement to spare human life, so that great
numbers even of the barbarians were thus saved, and owed their lives to the emperor's gold.
A Farther Mention of his Prayers in the Tabernacle.
Now these, and a thousand such acts as these, were familiarly and habitually done by the
emperor. And on the present occasion he retired, as his custom was before battle, to the privacy
of his tabernacle, and there employed his time in prayer to God. Meanwhile he strictly abstained
from anything like ease, or luxurious living, and disciplined himself by fasting and bodily
mortification, imploring the favor of God by supplication and prayer, that he might obtain his
concurrence and aid, and be ready to execute whatever he might be pleased to suggest to his
thoughts. In short, he exercised a vigilant care over all alike, and interceded with God as much
for the safety of his enemies as for that of his own subjects.
Treacherous Friendship, and Idolatrous Practices of Licinius.
And inasmuch as he who had lately fled before him now dissembled his real sentiments, and
again petitioned for a renewal of friendship and alliance, the emperor thought fit, on certain
conditions, to grant his request, in the hope that such a measure might be expedient, and
generally advantageous to the community. Licinius, however, while he pretended a ready
submission to the terms prescribed, and attested his sincerity by oaths, at this very time was
secretly engaged in collecting a military force, and again meditated war and strife, inviting even
the barbarians to join his standard, and he began also to look about him for other gods, having
been deceived by those in whom he had hitherto trusted. And, without bestowing a thought on
what he had himself publicly spoken on the subject of false deities, or choosing to acknowledge
that God who had fought on the side of Constantine, he made himself ridiculous by seeking for a
multitude of new gods.
How Licinius counseled his Soldiers not to attack the Standard of the
Having now learned by experience the Divine and mysterious power which resided in the
salutary trophy, by means of which Constantine's army had become habituated to victory, he
admonished his soldiers never to direct their attack against this standard, nor even incautiously to
allow their eyes to rest upon it; assuring them that it possessed a terrible power, and was
especially hostile to him; so that they would do well carefully to avoid any collision with it. And
now, having given these directions, he prepared for a decisive conflict with him whose humanity
prompted him still to hesitate, and to postpone the fate which he foresaw awaited his adversary.
The enemy, however, confident in the aid of a multitude of gods, advanced to the attack with a
powerful array of military force, preceded by certain images of the dead, and lifeless statues, as
their defense. On the other side, the emperor, secure in the armor of godliness, opposed to the
numbers of the enemy the salutary and life-giving sign, as at once a terror to the foe, and a
protection from every harm. And for a while he paused, and preserved at first the attitude of
forbearance, from respect to the treaty of peace to which he had given his sanction, that he might
not be the first to commence the contest.
But as soon as he perceived that his adversaries persisted in their resolution, and were already
drawing their swords, he gave free scope to his indignation, and by a single charge overthrew in a
moment the entire body of the enemy, thus triumphing at once over them and their gods.
Death of Licinius, and Celebration of the Event.
He then proceeded to deal with this adversary of God and his followers according to the laws of
war, and consign them to fitting punishment. Accordingly the tyrant himself, and they whose
counsels had supported him in his impiety, were together subjected to the just punishment of
death. After this, those who had so lately been deceived by their vain confidence in false deities,
acknowledged with unfeigned sincerity the God of Constantine, and openly professed their belief
in him as the true and only God.
Rejoicings and Festivities.
And now, the impious being thus removed, the sun once more shone brightly after the gloomy cloud of tyrannic power. Each separate portion of the Roman dominion became blended with the rest; the Eastern nations united with those of the West, and the whole body of the Roman empire was graced as it were by its head in the person of a single and supreme ruler, whose sole authority pervaded the whole. Now too the bright rays of the light of godliness gladdened the days of those who had heretofore been sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. Past sorrows were no more remembered, for all united in celebrating the praises of the victorious prince, and avowed their recognition of his preserver as the only true God. Thus he whose character shone with all the virtues of piety, the emperor Victor, for he had himself adopted this name as a most fitting appellation to express the victory which God had granted him over all who hated or opposed him, assumed the dominion of the East, and thus singly governed the Roman empire, re-united, as in former times, under one head. Thus, as he was the first to proclaim to all the sole sovereignty of God, so he himself, as sole sovereign of the Roman world, extended his authority over the whole human race. Every apprehension of those evils under the pressure of which all had suffered was now removed; men whose heads had drooped in sorrow
now regarded each other with smiling countenances, and looks expressive of their inward joy.
With processions and hymns of praise they first of all, as they were told, ascribed the supreme
sovereignty to God, as in truth the King of kings; and then with continued acclamations rendered
honor to the victorious emperor, and the Caesars, his most discreet and pious sons. The former
afflictions were forgotten, and all past impieties forgiven: while with the enjoyment of present
happiness was mingled the expectation of continued blessings in the future.
Constantine's Enactments in Favor of the Confessors.
MOREOVER, the emperor's edicts, permeated with his humane spirit, were published among us
also, as they had been among the inhabitants of the other division of the empire; and his laws,
which breathed a spirit of piety toward God, gave promise of manifold blessings, since they
secured many advantages to his provincial subjects in every nation, and at the same time
prescribed measures suited to the exigencies of the churches of God. For first of all they recalled
those who, in consequence of their refusal to join in idol worship, had been driven to exile, or
ejected from their homes by the governors of their respective provinces. In the next place, they
relieved from their burdens those who for the same reason had been adjudged to serve in the civil
courts, and ordained restitution to be made to any who had been deprived of property. They too,
who in the time of trial had signalized themselves by fortitude of soul in the cause of God, and
had therefore been condemned to the painful labor of the mines, or consigned to the solitude of
islands, or compelled to toil in the public works, all received an immediate release from these
burdens; while others, whose religious constancy had cost them the forfeiture of their military
rank, were vindicated by the emperor's generosity from this dishonor: for he granted them the
alternative either of resuming their rank, and enjoying their former privileges, or, in the event of
their preferring a more settled life, of perpetual exemption from all service. Lastly, all who had
been compelled by way of disgrace and insult to serve in the employments of women, he likewise
freed with the rest.
His Laws concerning Martyrs, and concerning Ecclesiastical Property.
Such were the benefits secured by the emperor's written mandates to the persons of those who
had thus suffered for the faith, d his laws made ample provision for their property also.
With regard to those holy martyrs of God who had laid down their lives in the confession of His
name, he directed that their estates should be enjoyed by their nearest kindred; and, in default of
any of these, that the right of inheritance should be vested in the churches. Farther, whatever
property had been consigned to other parties from the treasury, whether in the way of sale or gift,
together with that retained in the treasury itself, the generous mandate of the emperor directed
should be restored to the original owners. Such benefits did his bounty, thus widely diffused,
confer on the Church of God.
How he won the Favor of the People.
But his munificence bestowed still further and more numerous favors on the heathen peoples and
the other nations of his empire. So that the inhabitants of our [Eastern] regions, who had heard of
the privileges experienced in the opposite portion of the empire, and had blessed the fortunate
recipients of them, and longed for the enjoyment of a similar lot for themselves, now with one
consent proclaimed their own happiness, when they saw themselves in possession of all these
blessings; and confessed that the appearance of such a monarch to the human race was indeed a
marvelous event, and such as the world's history had never yet recorded. Such were their
That he declared God to be the Author of his Prosperity: and concerning his Rescripts.
AND now that, through the powerful aid of God his Saviour, all nations owned their subjection
to the emperor's authority, he openly proclaimed to all the name of Him to whose bounty he
owed all his blessings, and declared that He, and not himself, was the author of his past victories.
This declaration, written both in the Latin and Greek languages, he caused to be transmitted
through every province of the empire. Now the excellence of his style of expression may be
known from a perusal of his letters themselves which were two in number; one addressed to the
churches of God; the other to the heathen population in the several cities of the empire. The latter
of these I think it well to insert here as connected with my present subject, in order on the one
hand that a copy of this document may be recorded as matter of history, and thus preserved to
posterity, and on the other that it may serve to confirm the truth of my present narrative. It is
taken from an authentic copy of the imperial statute in my own possession and the signature in
the emperor's own handwriting attaches as it were the impress of truth to the statement I have
Law of Constantine respecting Piety towards God, and the Christian Religion.
"VICTOR CONSTANTINUS, MAXIMUS AUGUSTUS to the inhabitants of the province of
"To all who entertain just and sound sentiments respecting the character of the Supreme Being, it
has long been most clearly evident, and beyond the possibility of doubt, how vast a difference
there has ever been between those who maintain a careful observance of the hallowed duties of
the Christian religion, and those who treat this religion with hostility or contempt. But at this
present time, we may see by stilt more manifest proofs, and still more decisive instances, both
how unreasonable it were to question this truth, and how mighty is the power of the Supreme
God: since it appears that they who faithfully observe His holy laws, and shrink from the
transgression of His commandments, are rewarded with abundant blessings, and are endued with
well-grounded hope as well as ample power for the accomplishment of their undertakings. On the
other hand, they who have cherished impious sentiments have experienced results corresponding
to their evil choice. For how is it to be expected that any blessing would be obtained by one who
neither desired to acknowledge nor duly to worship that God who is the source of all blessing?
Indeed, facts themselves are a confirmation of what I say.
An Illustration from Ancient Times.
"FOR certainly any one who will mentally retrace the course of events from the earliest period
down to the present time, and will reflect on what has occurred in past ages, will find that all who
have made justice and probity the basis of their conduct, have not only carried their undertakings
to a successful issue, but have gathered, as it were, a store of sweet fruit as the produce of this
pleasant root. Again, whoever observes the career of those who have been bold in the practice of
oppression or injustice; who have either directed their senseless fury against God himself, or
have conceived no kindly feelings towards their fellow-men, but have dared to afflict them with
exile, disgrace, confiscation, massacre, or other miseries of the like kind, and all this without any
sense of compunction, or wish to direct thoughts to a better course, will find that such men have
received a recompense proportioned to their crimes. And these are results which might naturally
and reasonably be expected to ensue?
Of Persecuted and Persecutors.
"For whoever have addressed themselves with integrity of purpose to any course of action,
keeping the fear of God continually before their thoughts, and preserving an unwavering faith in
him, without allowing present fears or dangers to outweigh their hope of future blessings--such
persons, though for a season they may have experienced painful trials, have borne their
afflictions lightly, being supported by the belief of greater rewards in store for them; and their
character has acquired a brighter luster in proportion to the severity of their past suffer-rags. With
regard, on the other hand, to those who have either dishonorably slighted the principles of justice,
or refused to acknowledge the Supreme God themselves, and yet have dared to subject others
who have faithfully maintained his worship to the most cruel insults and punishments; who have
failed equally to recognize their own wretchedness in oppressing others on such grounds, and the
happiness and blessing of those who preserved their devotion to God even in the midst of such
sufferings: with regard, I say, to such men, many a time have their armies been slaughtered, many
a time have they been put to flight; and their warlike preparations have ended in total ruin and
How the Persecution became the Occasion of Calamities to the Aggressors.
"From the causes I have described, grievous wars arose, and destructive devastations. Hence
followed a scarcity of the common necessaries of life, and a crowd of consequent miseries:
hence, too, the authors of these impieties have either met a disastrous death of extreme suffering,
or have dragged out an ignominious existence, and confessed it to be worse than death itself, thus
receiving as it were a measure of punishment proportioned to the heinousness of their crimes. For
each experienced a degree of calamity according to the blind fury with which he had been led to
combat, and as he thought, defeat the Divine will: so that they not only felt the pressure of the ills
of this present life, but were tormented also by a most lively apprehension of punishment in the
That God chose Constantine to be the Minister of Blessing.
"AND now, with such a mass of impiety oppressing the human race, and the commonwealth in
danger of being utterly destroyed, as if by the agency of some pestilential disease, and therefore
needing powerful and effectual aid; what was the relief, and what the remedy which the Divinity
devised for these evils? (And by Divinity is meant the one who is alone and truly God, the
possessor of almighty and eternal power: and surely it cannot be deemed arrogance in one who
has received benefits from God, to acknowledge them in the loftiest terms of praise.) I myself,
then, was the instrument whose services He chose, and esteemed suited for the accomplishment
of his will. Accordingly, beginning at the remote Britannic ocean, and the regions where,
according to the law of nature, the sun sinks beneath the horizon, through the aid of divine power
I banished and utterly removed every form of evil which prevailed, in the hope that the human
race, enlightened through my instrumentality, might be recalled to a due observance of the holy
laws of God, and at the same time our most blessed faith might prosper under the guidance of his
Constantine's Expressions of Piety towards God; and Praise of the Confessors.
"I said, under the guidance of his hand; for I would desire never to be forgetful of the gratitude
due to his grace. Believing, therefore, that this most excellent service had been confided to me as
a special gift, I proceeded as far as the regions of the East, which, being under the pressure of
severer calamities, seemed to demand still more effectual remedies at my hands. At the same
time I am most certainly persuaded that I myself owe my life, my every breath, in short, my very
inmost and secret thoughts, entirely to the favor of the Supreme God.
Now I am well aware that they who are sincere in the pursuit of the heavenly hope, and have
fixed this hope in heaven itself as the peculiar and predominant principle of their lives, have no
need to depend on human favor, but rather have enjoyed higher honors in proportion as they have
separated themselves from the inferior and evil things of this earthly existence. Nevertheless I
deem it incumbent on me to remove at once and most completely from all such persons the hard
necessities laid upon them for a season, and the unjust inflictions under which they have suffered,
though free from any guilt or just liability. For it would be strange indeed, that the fortitude and
constancy of soul displayed by such men should be fully apparent during the reign of those
whose first object it was to persecute them on account of their devotion to God, and yet that the
glory of their character should not be more bright and blessed, under the dministration of a prince
who is His servant.
A Law granting Release from Exile, from Service in the Courts, and from the Confiscation of
"LET all therefore who have exchanged their country for a foreign land, because they would not
abandon that reverence and faith toward God to which they had devoted themselves with their
whole hearts, and have in consequence at different times been subject to the cruel sentence of the
courts; together with any who have been enrolled in the registers of the public courts though in
time past exempt from such office let these, I say, now render thanks to God the Liberator of all,
in that they are restored to their hereditary property, and their wonted tranquility. Let those also
who have been despoiled of their goods, and have hitherto passed a wretched existence,
mourning under the loss of all that they possessed, once more be restored to their former homes,
their families, and estates, and receive with joy the bountiful kindness of God.
Release likewise granted to Exiles in the Islands.
"FURTHERMORE, it is our command that all those who have been detained in the islands
against their will should receive the benefit of this present provision; in order that they who till
now have been surrounded by rugged mountains and the encircling barrier of the ocean, being
now set free from that gloomy and desolate solitude, may fulfill their fondest wish by revisiting
their dearest friends. Those, too, who have prolonged a miserable life in the midst of abject and
wretched squalor, welcoming their restoration as an unlooked-for gain, and discarding henceforth
all anxious thoughts, may pass their lives with us in freedom from all fear. For that any one could
live in a state of fear under our government, when we boast and believe ourselves to be the
servants of God, would surely be a thing most extraordinary even to hear of, and quite incredible;
and our mission is to rectify the errors of the others.
And to those ignominiously employed in the Mines and Public Works.
"AGAIN, with regard to those who have been condemned either to the grievous labor of the
mines, or to service in the public works, let them enjoy the sweets of leisure in place of these
long-continued toils, and henceforth lead a far easier life, and more accordant with the wishes of
their hearts, exchanging the incessant hardships of their tasks for quiet relaxation. And if any
have forfeited the common privilege of liberty, or have unhappily suffered dishonor, let them
hasten back every one to the country of his nativity, and resume with becoming joy their former
positions in society, from which they have been as it were separated by long residence abroad.
Concerning those Confessors engaged in Military Service.
"ONCE more, with respect to those who had previously been preferred to any military
distinction, of which they were afterwards deprived, for the cruel and unjust reason that they
chose rather to acknowledge their allegiance to God than to retain the rank they held; we leave
them perfect liberty of choice, either to occupy their former stations, should they be content again
to engage in military service, or after an honorable discharge, to live in undisturbed tranquillity.
For it is fair and consistent that men who have displayed such magnanimity and fortitude in
meeting the perils to which they have been exposed, should be allowed the choice either of
enjoying peaceful leisure, or resuming their former rank.
The Liberation of Free Persons condemned to labor in the Women's Apartments, or to Servitude.
"LASTLY, if any have wrongfully been deprived of the privileges of noble lineage, and subjected
to a judicial sentence which has consigned them to the women's apartments and to the linen
making, there to undergo a cruel and miserable labor, or reduced them to servitude for the benefit
of the public treasury, without any exemption on the ground of superior birth; let such persons,
resuming the honors they had previously enjoyed, and their proper dignities, henceforward exult
in the blessings of liberty, and lead a glad life. Let the free man, too, by some injustice and
inhumanity, or even madness, made a slave, who has felt the sudden transition from liberty to
bondage, and ofttimes bewailed his unwonted labors, return to his family once more a free man
in virtue of this our ordinance, and seek those employments which befit a state of freedom; and
let him dismiss from his remembrance those services which he found so oppressive, and which
so ill became his condition.
Of the Inheritance of the Property of Martyrs and Confessors, also of those who had suffered
Banishment or Confiscation of Property.
"Nor must we omit to notice those estates of which individuals have been deprived on various
pretenses. For if any of those who have engaged with dauntless and resolute determination in the
noble and divine conflict of martyrdom have also been stripped of their fortunes; or if the same
has been the lot of the confessors, who have won for themselves the hope of eternal treasures; or
if the loss of property has befallen those who were driven from their native land because they
would not yield to the persecutors, and betray their faith; lastly, if any who have escaped the
sentence of death have yet been despoiled of their worldly goods; we ordain that the inheritances
of all such persons be transferred to their nearest kindred. And whereas the laws expressly assign
this right to those most nearly related, it will be easy to ascertain to whom these inheritances
severally belong. And it is evidently reasonable that the succession in these cases should belong
to those who would have stood in the place of nearest affinity, had the deceased experienced a
The Church is declared Heir of those who leave no Kindred; and the Free Gifts of such Persons
"But should there be no surviving relation to succeed in due course to the property of those
above-mentioned, I mean the martyrs, or confessors, or those who for some such cause have been
banished from their native land; in such cases we ordain that the church locally nearest in each
instance shall succeed to the inheritance. And surely it will be no wrong to the departed that that
church should be their heir, for whose sake they have endured every extremity of suffering. We
think it necessary to add this also, that in case any of the above-mentioned persons have donated
any part of their property in the way of free gift, possession of such property shall be assured, as
is reasonable, to those who have thus received it.
Lands, Gardens, or Houses, but not Actual Produce from them, are to be given back.
"AND that there may be no obscurity in this our ordinance, but every one may readily apprehend
its requirements, let all men hereby know that if they are now maintaining themselves in
possession of a piece of land, or a house, or garden, or anything else which had appertained to the
before-mentioned persons, it will be good and advantageous for them to acknowledge the fact,
and make restitution with the least possible delay. On the other hand, although it should appear
that some individuals have reaped abundant profits from this unjust possession, we do not
consider that justice demands the restitution of such profits. They must, however, declare
explicitly what amount of benefit they have thus derived, and from what sources, and entreat our
pardon for this offense; in order that their past covetousness may in some measure be atoned for,
and that the Supreme God may accept this compensation as a token of contrition, and be pleased
graciously to pardon the sin.
In what Manner Requests should be made for these.
"BUT it is possible that those who have become masters of such property (if it be right or
possible to allow them such a title) will assure us by way of apology for their conduct, that it was
not in their power to abstain from this appropriation at a time when a spectacle of misery in all its
forms everywhere met the view; when men were cruelly driven from their homes, slaughtered
without mercy, thrust forth without remorse: when the confiscation of the property of innocent
persons was a common thing, and when persecutions and property seizures were unceasing. If
any defend their conduct by such reasons as these, and still persist in their avaricious temper,
they shall be made sensible that such a course will bring punishment on themselves, and all the
more because this correction of evil is the very characteristic of our service to the Supreme God.
So that it will henceforth be dangerous to retain what dire necessity may in time past have
compelled men to take; especially because it is in any case incumbent on us to discourage
covetous desires, both by persuasion, and by warning examples.
The Treasury must restore Lands, Gardens, and Houses to the Churches.
"Nor shall the treasury itself, should it have any of the things we have spoken of, be permitted to
keep them; but, without venturing as it were to raise its voice against the holy churches, it shall
justly relinquish in their favor what it has for a time unjustly retained. We ordain, therefore, that
all things whatsoever which shall appear righteously to belong to the churches, whether the
property consist of houses or fields and gardens, or whatever the nature of it may be, shall be
restored in their full value and integrity, and with undiminished right of possession.
The Tombs of Martyrs and the Cemeteries to be transferred to the Possession of the Churches.
"Again, with respect to those places which are honored in being the depositories of the remains
of martyrs, and continue to be memorials of their glorious departure; how can we doubt that they
rightly belong to the churches, or refrain from issuing our injunction to that effect? For surely
there can be no better liberality, no labor more pleasing or profitable, than to be thus employed
under the guidance of the Divine Spirit, in order that those things which have been appropriated
on false pretenses by unjust and wicked men, may be restored, as justice demands, and once more
secured to the holy churches.
Those who have purchased Property belonging to the Church, or received it as a Gift, are to
"AND since it would be wrong in a provision intended to include all cases, to pass over those
who have either procured any such property by right of purchase from the treasury, or have
retained it when conveyed to them in the form of a gift; let all who have thus rashly indulged
their insatiable thirst of gain be assured that, although by daring to make such purchases they
have done all in their power to alienate our clemency from themselves, they shall nevertheless
not fail of obtaining it, so far as is possible and consistent with propriety in each case. So much
then is determined.
An Earnest Exhortation to worship God.
"AND now, since it appears by the clearest and most convincing evidence, that the miseries
which erewhile oppressed the entire human race are now banished from every part of the world,
through the power of Almighty God, and at the same time the counsel and aid which he is
pleased on many occasions to administer through our agency; it remains for all, both individually
and unitedly, to observe and seriously consider how great this power and how efficacious this
grace are, which have annihilated and utterly destroyed this generation, as I may call them, of
most wicked and evil men; have restored joy to the good, and diffused it over all countries; and
now guarantee the fullest authority both to honor the Divine law as it should be honored, with all
reverence, and pay due observance to those who have dedicated themselves to the service of that
law. These rising as from some dark abyss and, with an enlightened knowledge of the present
course of events, will henceforward render to its precepts that becoming reverence and honor
which are consistent with their pious character.
Let this ordinance be published in our Eastern provinces."
How the Enactments of Constantine were carried into Effect.
Such were the injunctions contained in the first letter which the emperor addressed to us. And the
provisions of this enactment were speedily carried into effect, everything being conducted in a
manner quite different from the atrocities which had but lately been daringly perpetrated during
the cruel ascendancy of the tyrants. Those persons also who were legally entitled to it, received
the benefit of the emperor's liberality.
That he promoted Christians to Offices of Government, and forbade Gentiles in Such Stations to
After this the emperor continued to address himself to matters of high importance, and first he
sent governors to the several provinces, mostly such as were devoted to the saving faith; and if
any appeared inclined to adhere to Gentile worship, he forbade them to offer sacrifice. This law
applied also to those who surpassed the provincial governors in rank and dignity, and even to
those who occupied the highest station, and held the authority of the Praetorian Praefecture. If
they were Christians, they were free to act consistently with their profession; if otherwise, the law
required them to abstain from idolatrous sacrifices.
Statutes which forbade Sacrifice, and enjoined the Building of Churches.
Soon after this, two laws were promulgated about the same time; one of which was intended to
restrain the idolatrous abominations which in time past had been practiced in every city and
country; and it provided that no one should erect images, or practice divination and other false
and foolish arts, or offer sacrifice in any way. The other statute commanded the heightening of
the oratories, and the enlargement in length and breadth of the churches of God; as though it were
expected that, now the madness of polytheism was wholly removed, pretty nearly all mankind
would henceforth attach themselves to the service of God. His own personal piety induced the
emperor to devise and write these instructions to the governors of the several provinces: and the
law farther admonished them not to spare the expenditure of money, but to draw supplies from
the imperial treasury itself. Similar instructions were written also to the bishops of the several
churches; and the emperor was pleased to transmit the same to myself, being the first letter which
he personally addressed to me.
Constantine's Letter to Eusebius and Other Bishops, respecting the Building of Churches, with
Instructions to repair the Old, and erect New Ones on a Larger Scale, with the Aid of the
"VICTOR CONSTANTINUS, MAXIMUS AUGUSTUS, to Eusebius.
"Forasmuch as the unholy and willful rule of tyranny has persecuted the servants of our Saviour
until this present time, I believe and have fully satisfied myself, best beloved brother, that the
buildings belonging to all the churches have either become ruinous through actual neglect, or
have received inadequate attention from the dread of the violent spirit of the times.
"But now, that liberty is restored, and that serpent driven from the administration of public affairs
by the providence of the Supreme God, and our instrumentality, we trust that all can see the
efficacy of the Divine power, and that they who through fear of persecution or through unbelief
have fallen into any errors, will now acknowledge the true God, and adopt in future that course of
life which is according to truth and rectitude. With respect, therefore, to the churches over which
you yourself preside, as well as the bishops, presbyters, and deacons of other churches with
whom you are acquainted, do you admonish all to be zealous in their attention to the buildings of
the churches, and either to repair or enlarge those which at present exist, or, in cases of necessity,
to erect new ones.
"We also empower you, and the others through you, to demand what is needful for the work, both
from the provincial governors and from the Praetorian Praefect. For they have received
instructions to be most diligent in obedience to your Holiness's orders. God preserve you,
beloved brother." A copy of this charge was transmitted throughout all the provinces to the
bishops of the several churches: the provincial governors received directions accordingly, and the
imperial statute was speedily carried into effect.
That he wrote a Letter in Condemnation of Idolatry.
MOREOVER, the emperor, who continually made progress in piety towards God, dispatched an
admonitory letter to the inhabitants of every province, respecting the error of idolatry into which
his predecessors in power bad fallen, in which he eloquently exhorts his subjects to acknowledge
the Supreme God, and openly to profess their allegiance to his Christ as their Saviour. This letter
also, which is in his own handwriting, I have judged it necessary to translate from the Latin for
the present work, in order that we may hear, as it were, the voice the emperor himself uttering
these sentiments in the audience of all mankind.
Constantine's Edict to the People of the Provinces concerning the Error of Polytheism,
commencing with Some General Remarks on Virtue and Vice.
"VICTOR CONSTANTINUS, MAXIMUS AUGUSTUS, to the people of the Eastern provinces.
"Whatever is comprehended under the sovereign laws of nature, seems to convey to all men an
adequate idea of the forethought and intelligence of the divine order. Nor can any, whose minds
are directed in the true path of knowledge to the attainment of that end, entertain a doubt that the
just perceptions of sound l reason, as well as those of the natural vision itself, through the sole
influence of genuine virtue, lead to the knowledge of God. Accordingly no wise man will ever
be surprised when he sees the mass of mankind influenced by opposite sentiments. For the beauty
of virtue would be useless and unperceived, did not vice display in contrast with it the course of
perversity and folly. Hence it is that the one is crowned with reward, while the most high God is
himself the administrator of judgment to the other.
"And now I will endeavor to lay before you all as explicitly as possible, the nature of my own
hopes of future happiness.
Concerning Constantine's Pious Father, and the Persecutors Diocletian and Maximian.
"The former emperors I have been accustomed to regard as those with whom I could have no
sympathy, on account of the savage cruelty of their character. Indeed, my father was the only one
who uniformly practiced the duties of humanity, and with admirable piety called for the blessing
of God the Father on all his actions, but the rest, unsound in mind, were more zealous of cruel
than gentle measures; and this disposition they indulged without restraint, and thus persecuted
the true doctrine during the whole period of their reign. Nay, so violent did their malicious fury
become, that in the midst of a profound peace, as regards both the religious and ordinary interests
of men, they kindled, as it were, the flames of a civil war.
That the Persecution originated an Account of the Oracle of Apollo, who, it was said, could not
give Oracles because of "the Righteous Men."
"About that time it is said that Apollo spoke from a deep and gloomy cavern, and through the
medium of no human voice, and declared that the righteous men on earth were a bar to his
speaking the truth, and accordingly that the oracles from the tripod were fallacious. Hence it was
that he suffered his tresses to droop in token of grief, and mourned the evils which the loss of the
oracular spirit would entail on mankind. But let us mark the consequences of this.
That Constantine, when a Youth, heard from him who wrote the Persecution Edict that "the
Righteous Men" were the Christians.
"I call now on thee, most high God, to witness that, when young, I heard him who at that time
was chief among the Roman emperors, unhappy, truly unhappy as he was, and laboring under
mental delusion, make earnest enquiry of his attendants as to who these righteous ones on earth
were, and that one of the Pagan priests then present replied that they were doubtless the
Christians. This answer he eagerly received, like some honeyed draught, and unsheathed the
sword which was ordained for the punishment of crime, against those whose holiness was
beyond reproach. Immediately, therefore, he issued those sanguinary edicts, traced, if I may so
express myself, with a sword's point dipped in blood; at the same time commanding his judges to
tax their ingenuity for the invention of new and more terrible punishments.
The Manifold Forms of Torture and Punishment practiced against the
"Then, indeed, one might see with what arrogance those venerable worshipers of God were daily
exposed, with continued and relentless cruelty, to outrages of the most grievous kind, and how
that modesty of character which no enemy had ever treated with disrespect, became the mere
sport of their infuriated fellow-citizens. Is there any punishment by fire, are there any tortures or
forms of torment, which were not applied to all, without distinction of age or sex? Then, it may
be truly said, the earth shed tears, the all-encircling compass of heaven mourned because of the
pollution of blood; and the very light of day itself was darkened in grief at the spectacle.
That the Barbarians kindly received the Christians.
"But what is the consequence of this? Why, the barbarians themselves may boast now of the
contrast their conduct presents to these creel deeds; for they received and kept in gentlest
captivity those who then fled from amongst us, and secured to them not merely safety from
danger, but also the free exercise of their holy religion. And now the Roman people bear that
lasting stain which the Christians, at that time driven from the Roman world, and taking refuge
with the barbarians, have branded on them.
What Vengeance overtook those who on Account of the Oracle raised the Persecution.
"But why need I longer dwell on these lamentable events, and the general sorrow which in
consequence pervaded the world? The perpetrators of this dreadful guilt are now no more: they
have experienced a miserable end, and are consigned to unceasing punishment in the depths of
the lower world. They encountered each other in civil strife, and have left neither name nor race
behind. And surely this calamity would never have befallen them, had not that impious
deliverance of the Pythian oracle exercised a delusive power over them.
Constantine gives Glory to God, makes Grateful Acknowledgment of the Sign of the Cross, and
prays for the Churches and People.
"AND now I beseech thee, most mighty God, to be merciful and gracious to thine Eastern
nations, to thy people in these provinces, worn as they are by protracted miseries; and grant them
healing through thy servant. Not without cause, O holy God, do I prefer this prayer to thee, the
Lord of all. Under thy guidance have I devised and accomplished measures fraught with
blessings: preceded by thy sacred sign I have led thy armies to victory: and still, on each occasion
of public danger, I follow the same symbol of thy perfections while advancing to meet the foe.
Therefore have I dedicated to thy service a soul duly attempered by love and fear. For thy name I
truly love, while I regard with reverence that power of which thou hast given abundant proofs, to
the confirmation and increase of my faith. I hasten, then, to devote all my powers to the
restoration of thy most holy dwelling-place, which those profane and impious men have defiled
by the contamination of violence.
He prays that All may be Christians, but compels None.
"MY own desire is, for the common good of the world and the advantage of all mankind, that thy
people should enjoy a life of peace and undisturbed concord. Let those, therefore, who still
delight in error, be made welcome to the same degree of peace and tranquillity which they have
who believe. For it may be that this restoration of equal privileges to all will prevail to lead them
into the straight path. Let no one molest another, but let every one do as his soul desires. Only let
men of sound judgment be assured of this, that those only can live a life of holiness and purity,
whom thou callest to a reliance on thy holy laws. With regard to those who will hold themselves
aloof from us, let them have, if they please, their temples of lies: we have the glorious edifice of
thy truth, which thou hast given us as our native home. We pray, however, that they too may
receive the same blessing, and thus experience that heartfelt joy which unity of sentiment
He gives Glory to God, who has given Light by his Son to those who were in Error.
"And truly our worship is no new or recent thing, but one which thou hast ordained for thine own
due honor, from the time when, as we believe, this system of the universe was first established.
And, although mankind have deeply fallen, and have been seduced by manifold errors, yet hast
thou revealed a pure light in the person of thy Son, that the power of evil should not utterly
prevail, and hast thus given testimony to all men concerning thyself.
He glorifies him again for his Government of the Universe.
"THE truth of this is assured to us by thy works. It is thy power which removes our guilt, and
makes us faithful. The sun and the moon have their settled course. The stars move in no
uncertain orbits round this terrestrial globe. The revolution of the seasons recurs according to
unerring laws. The solid fabric of the earth was established by thy word: the winds receive their
impulse at appointed times; and the course of the waters continues with ceaseless flow, the ocean
is circumscribed by an immovable barrier, and whatever is comprehended within the compass of
earth and sea, is all contrived for wondrous and important ends.
"Were it not so, were not all regulated by the determination of thy will, so great a diversity, so
manifold a division of power, would unquestionably have brought ruin on the whole race and its
affairs. For those agencies which have maintained a mutual strife would thus have carried to a
more deadly length that hostility against the human race which they even now exercise, though
unseen by mortal eyes.
He gives Glory to God, as the Constant Teacher of Good.
"ABUNDANT thanks, most mighty God, and Lord of all, be rendered to thee, that, by so much
as our nature becomes known from the diversified pursuits of man, by so much the more are the
precepts of thy divine doctrine confirmed to those whose thoughts are directed aright, and who
are sincerely devoted to true virtue. As for those who will not allow themselves to be cured of
their error, let them not attribute this to any but themselves. For that remedy which is of
sovereign and healing virtue is openly placed within the reach of all. Only let not any one inflict
an injury on that religion which experience itself testifies to be pure an undefiled. Henceforward,
therefore, let us all enjoy in common the privilege placed within our reach, I mean the blessing of
peace, endeavoring to keep our conscience pure from all that is contrary.
An Admonition at the Close of the Edict, that No One should trouble his Neighbor.
"ONCE more, let none use that to the detriment of another which he may himself have received
on conviction of its truth; but let every, one, if it be possible, apply what he has understood and
known to the benefit of his neighbor; if otherwise, let him relinquish the attempt. For it is one
thing voluntarily to undertake the conflict for immortality, another to compel others to do so
from the fear of punishment.
"These are our words; and we have enlarged on these topics more than our ordinary clemency
would have dictated, because we were unwilling to dissemble or be false to the true faith; and the
more so, since we understand there are some who say that the rites of the heathen temples, and
the power of darkness, have been entirely removed. We should indeed have earnestly
recommended such removal to all men, were it not that the rebellious spirit of those wicked
errors still continues obstinately fixed in the minds of some, so as to discourage the hope of any
general restoration of mankind to the ways of truth."
How Controversies originated at Alexandria through Matters relating to Arius.
In this manner the emperor, like a powerful herald of God, addressed himself by his own letter to
all the provinces, at the same time warning his subjects against superstitious error, and
encouraging them in the pursuit of true godliness. But in the midst of his joyful anticipations of
the success of this measure, he received tidings of a most serious disturbance which had invaded
the peace of the Church. This intelligence he heard with deep concern, and at once endeavored to
devise a remedy for the evil. The origin of this disturbance may be thus described. The people of
God were in a truly flourishing state, and abounding in the practice of good works. No terror
from without assailed them, but a bright and most profound peace, through the favor of God,
encompassed his Church on every side. Meantime, however, the spirit of envy was watching to
destroy our blessings, which at first crept in unperceived, but soon revelled in the midst of the
assemblies of the saints. At length it reached the bishops themselves, and arrayed them in angry
hostility against each other, on pretense of a jealous regard for the doctrines of Divine truth.
Hence it was that a mighty fire was kindled as it were from a little spark, and which, originating
in the first instance in the Alexandrian church, overspread the whole of Egypt and Libya, and the
further Thebaid. Eventually it extended its ravages to the other provinces and cities of the
empire; so that not only the prelates of the churches might be seen encountering each other in the
strife of words, but the people themselves were completely divided, some adhering to one faction
and others to another. Nay, so notorious did the scandal of these proceedings become, that the
sacred matters of inspired teaching were exposed to the most shameful ridicule in the very
theaters of the unbelievers.
Concerning the Same Arius, and the Melitians.
Some thus at Alexandria maintained an obstinate conflict on the highest questions. Others
throughout Egypt and the Upper Thebaid, were at variance on account of an earlier controversy:
so that the churches were everywhere distracted by divisions. The body therefore being thus
diseased, the whole of Libya caught the contagion; and the rest of the remoter provinces became
affected with the same disorder. For the disputants at Alexandria sent emissaries to the bishops of
the several provinces, who accordingly ranged themselves as partisans on either side, and shared
in the same spirit of discord.
How Constantine sent a Messenger and a Letter concerning Peace.
As soon as the emperor was informed of these facts, which he heard with much sorrow of heart,
considering them in the light of a calamity personally affecting himself, he forthwith selected
from the Christians in his train one whom he well knew to be approved for the sobriety and
genuineness of his faith, and who had before this time distinguished himself by the boldness. of
his religious profession, and sent him to negotiate peace between the dissentient parties at
Alexandria. He also made him the bearer of a most needful and appropriate letter to the original
movers of the strife: and this letter, as exhibiting a specimen of his watchful care over God's
people, it may be well to introduce into this our narrative of his life. Its purport was as follows.
Constantine's Letter to Alexander the Bishop, and Arius the Presbyter.
"VICTOR CONSTANTINUS, MAXIMUS AUGUSTUS, to Alexander and Arius.
"I call that God to witness, as well I may, who is the helper of my endeavors, and the Preserver of
all men, that I had a twofold reason for undertaking that duty which I have now performed.
His Continual Anxiety for Peace.
"MY design then was, first, to bring the diverse judgments formed by all nations respecting the
Deity to a condition, as it were, of settled uniformity; and, secondly, to restore to health the
system of the world, then suffering under the malignant power of a grievous distemper. Keeping
these objects in view, I sought to accomplish the one by the secret eye of thought, while the other
I tried to rectify by the power of military authority. For I was aware that, if I should succeed in
establishing, according to my hopes, a common harmony of sentiment among all the servants of
God, the general course of affairs would also experience a change correspondent to the pious
desires of them all.
That he also adjusted the Controversies which had arisen in Africa.
"Finding, then, that the whole of Africa was pervaded by an intolerable spirit of mad folly,
through the influence of those who with heedless frivolity had presumed to rend the religion of
the people into diverse sects; I was anxious to check this disorder, and could discover no other
remedy equal to the occasion, except in sending some of yourselves to aid in restoring mutual
harmony among the disputants, after I had removed that common enemy of mankind who had
interposed his lawless sentence for the prohibition of your holy synods.
That Religion began in the East.
"For since the power of Divine light, and the law of sacred worship, which, proceeding in the
first instance, through the favor of God, from the bosom, as it were, of the East, have illumined
the world, by their sacred radiance, I naturally believed that you would be the first to promote the
salvation of other nations, and resolved with all energy of thought and diligence of enquiry to
seek your aid. As soon, therefore, as I had secured my decisive victory and unquestionable
triumph over my enemies, my first enquiry was concerning that object which I felt to be of
paramount interest and importance.
Being grieved by the Dissension, he counsels Peace.
"BUT, O glorious Providence of God! how deep a wound did not my ears only, but my very heart
receive in the report that divisions existed among yourselves more grievous still than those which
continued in that country! so that you, through whose aid I had hoped to procure a remedy for the
errors of others, are in a state which needs healing even more than theirs. And yet, having made a
careful enquiry into the origin and foundation of these differences, I find the cause to be of a truly
insignificant character, and quite unworthy of such fierce contention. Feeling myself, therefore,
compelled to address you in this letter, and to appeal at the same time to your unanimity and
sagacity, I call on Divine Providence to assist me in the task, while I interrupt your dissension in
the character of a minister of peace. And with reason: for if I might expect, with the help of a
higher Power, to be able without difficulty, by a judicious appeal to the pious feelings of those
who heard me, to recall them to a better spirit, even though the occasion of the disagreement
were a greater one, how can I refrain from promising myself a far easier and more speedy
adjustment of this difference, when the cause which hinders general harmony of sentiment is
intrinsically trifling and of little moment?
Origin of the Controversy between Alexander and Arius, and that these Questions ought not to
have been discussed.
"I UNDERSTAND, then, that the origin of the present controversy is this. When you,
Alexander, demanded of the presbyters what opinion they severally maintained respecting a
certain passage in the Divine law, or rather, I should say, that you asked them something
connected with an unprofitable question, then you, Arius, inconsiderately insisted on what ought
never to have been conceived at all, or if conceived, should have been buried in profound silence.
Hence it was that a dissension arose between you, fellowship was withdrawn, and the holy
people, rent into diverse parties, no longer preserved the unity of the one body. Now, therefore,
do ye both exhibit an equal degree of forbearance, and receive the advice which your
fellow-servant righteously gives. What then is this advice? It was wrong in the first instance to
propose such questions as these, or to reply to them when propounded. For those points of
discussion which are enjoined by the authority of no law, but rather suggested by the contentious
spirit which is fostered by misused leisure, even though they may be intended merely as an
intellectual exercise, ought certainly to be confined to the region of our own thoughts, and not
hastily produced in the popular assemblies, nor unadvisedly intrusted to the general ear. For how
very few are there able either accurately to comprehend, or adequately to explain subjects so
sublime and abstruse in their nature? Or, granting that one were fully competent for this, how
many people will he convince? Or, who, again, in dealing with questions of such subtle nicety as
these, can secure himself against a dangerous declension from the truth? It is incumbent therefore
on us in these cases to be sparing of our words, lest, in case we ourselves are unable, through the
feebleness of our natural faculties, to give a clear explanation of the subject before us, or, on the
other hand, in case the slowness of our hearers' understandings disables them from arriving at an
accurate apprehension of what we say, from one or other of these causes the people be reduced to
the alternative either of blasphemy or schism.
An Exhortation to Unanimity.
"LET therefore both the unguarded question and the inconsiderate answer receive your mutual
forgiveness. For the cause of your difference has not been any of the leading doctrines or precepts
of the Divine law, nor has any new heresy respecting the worship of God arisen among you. You
are in truth of one and the same judgment: you may therefore well join in communion and
There should be no Contention in Matters which are in themselves of Little Moment.
"For as long as you continue to contend about these small and very insignificant questions, it is
not fitting that so large a portion of God's people should be under the direction of your judgment,
since you are thus divided between yourselves. I believe it indeed to be not merely unbecoming,
but positively evil, that such should be the case. But I will refresh your minds by a little
illustration, as follows. You know that philosophers, though they all adhere to one system, are yet
frequently at issue on certain points, and differ, perhaps, in their degree of knowledge: yet they
are recalled to harmony of sentiment by the uniting power of their common doctrines. If this be
true, is it not far more reasonable that you, who are the ministers of the Supreme God, should be
of one mind respecting the profession of the same religion? But let us still more thoughtfully and
with closer attention examine what I have said, and see whether it be right that, on the ground of
some trifling and foolish verbal difference between ourselves, brethren should assume towards
each other the attitude of enemies, and the august meeting of the Synod be rent by profane
disunion, because of you who wrangle together on points so trivial and altogether unessential?
This is vulgar, and rather characteristic of childish ignorance, than consistent I with the wisdom
of priests and men of sense. Let us withdraw ourselves with a good will from these temptations
of the devil. Our great God and common Saviour of all has granted the same light to us all.
Permit me, who am his servant, to bring my task to a successful issue, under the direction of his
Providence, that I may be enabled, through my exhortations, and diligence, and earnest
admonition, to recall his people to communion and fellowship. For since you have, as I said, but
one faith, and one sentiment respecting our religion, and since the Divine commandment in all its
parts enjoins on us all the duty of maintaining a spirit of concord, let not the circumstance which
has led to a slight difference between you, since it does not affect the validity of the whole, cause
any division or schism among you. And this I say without in any way desiring to force you to
entire unity of judgment in regard to this truly idle question, whatever its real nature may be. For
the dignity of your synod may be preserved, and the communion of your whole body maintained
unbroken, however wide a difference may exist among you as to unimportant matters. For we are
not all of us like-minded on every subject, nor is there such a thing as one disposition and
judgment common to all alike. As far, then, as regards the Divine Providence, let there be one
faith, and one understanding among you, one united judgment in reference to God. But as to your
subtle disputations on questions of little or no significance, though you may be unable to
harmonize in sentiment, such differences should be consigned to the secret custody of your own
minds and thoughts. And now, let the preciousness of common affection, let faith in the truth, let
the honor due to God and to the observance of his law continue immovably among you. Resume,
then, your mutual feelings of friendship, love, and regard: restore to the people their wonted
embracings; and do ye yourselves, having purified your souls, as it were, once more acknowledge
one another. For it often happens that when a reconciliation is effected by the removal of the
causes of enmity, friendship becomes even sweeter than it was before.
The Excess of his Pious Concern caused him to shed Tears; and his Intended Journey to the East
was postponed because of These Things.
"RESTORE me then my quiet days, and untroubled nights, that the joy of undimmed light, the
delight of a tranquil life, may henceforth be my portion. Else must I needs mourn, with constant
tears, nor shall I be able to pass the residue of my days in peace. For while the people of God,
whose fellow-servant I am, are thus divided amongst themselves by an unreasonable and
pernicious spirit of contention, how is it possible that I shall be able to maintain tranquillity of
mind? And I will give you a proof how great my sorrow has been on this behalf. Not long since I
had visited Nicomedia, and intended forthwith to proceed from that city to the East. It was while
I was hastening towards you, and had already accomplished the greater part of the distance, that
the news of this matter reversed my plan, that I might not be compelled to see with my own eyes
that which I felt myself scarcely able even to hear. Open then for me henceforward by your unity
of judgment that road to the regions of the East which your dissensions have closed against me,
and permit me speedily to see yourselves and all other peoples rejoicing together, and render due
acknowledgment to God in the language of praise and thanksgiving for the restoration of general
concord and liberty to all."
The Controversy continues without Abatement, even after the Receipt of This Letter.
IN this manner the pious emperor endeavored by means of the foregoing letter to promote the
peace of the Church of God. And the excellent man to whom it was intrusted performed his part
not merely by communicating the letter itself, but also by seconding the views of him who sent it;
for he was, as I have said, in all respects a person of pious character. The evil, however, was
greater than could be remedied by a single letter, insomuch that the acrimony of the contending
parties continually increased, and the effects of the mischief extended to all the Eastern
provinces. These things jealousy and some evil spirit who looked with an envious eye on the
prosperity of the Church, wrought.